Written By: John M. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The branch of medicine called veterinary medicine deals with the study, prevention, and treatment of diseases not only in domesticated animals…. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today.
A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine
Readers Benefits of registering Where are my ebooks? Ask it above. Veterinary practice as we know it today is a very recent development. Prior to that, medical care for animals consisted of a hodgepodge of folk remedies, herbs, and modified human medical treatmen More. Prior to that, medical care for animals consisted of a hodgepodge of folk remedies, herbs, and modified human medical treatments. It was not until the early twentieth century that veterinary care as we know it today began to emerge.
Amy Fernandez is a multi award winning dog writer. He obtained them in from monkeys housed within the London Zoological Gardens. Traces of many other species feature in the written reports of meetings where he displayed their bodies, in the specimens he deposited within museums, in the copious articles he contributed to the medical and zoological press, and in the discussions his findings provoked within the medical profession. These traces illuminate not only the lives and afterlives of certain inhabitants of Britain's most famous zoo, but also the activities and concerns of the men who studied them, and turned their fates to human advantage.
As the impoverished son of a taxidermist, Bland Sutton had paid his way through medical school by working as a demonstrator and private teacher in anatomy. Although not the first doctor to conduct such examinations, he was far more systematic than his predecessors, incorporating them into a personal research programme that involved the dissection of 12, human and animal subjects between and For Bland Sutton, the dead animals of London Zoo served as vehicles of professional advancement.
His examination of their bodies enabled him to mingle socially with prestigious members of the London Zoological Society. His insights into animal diseases resulted in invitations to address London's many medical societies, whose reports — when published in the medical press — significantly enhanced his professional profile. This was due to a series of enthusiastic presidents, as well as wider bacteriological and epidemiological investigations encouraged by new germ theories, which illuminated the animal-to-human transmission of certain infectious diseases.
As a scientific institution, where the circumstances of disease and death were closely monitored, and which boasted ample facilities for conducting post-mortems on the many animals that died, the zoo seemed an ideal site of enquiry. Under the PSL's direction, Bland Sutton approached diseased and dead zoo animals as points of comparison with humans.
In contrast with laboratory-based medical scientists, who deliberately created diseased animals that could substitute for humans in experiments, he focused on animals that suffered spontaneously from disease, and sought, by comparison, to determine the similarities and differences between their diseases and those of humans. Whereas experimentalists relied on small rodents and dogs, Bland Sutton was attracted particularly by monkeys, owing to their proximity to humans on the zoological scale.
In the fourteen months from December , Bland Sutton examined the bodies of a hundred dead monkeys. He discovered that, contrary to popular belief, most had died of bronchitis, not of tuberculosis which, as in humans, was regarded as the commonest cause of death at the time.
Unexpectedly, he found that the second most frequent cause of death was rickets. This, too, was a major health concern in humans. Found especially in poor, urban children, it was characterized by softening and deformity of the bones, stunted growth, a large head, a misshapen chest, twisted long bones and enlarged wrists and ankles. The cause was uncertain, although observers suggested various contributing factors, such as faulty diet, poor hygiene, inheritance, lack of exercise and lack of fresh air and sunlight. To this end, Bland Sutton retained and studied all of the bodies of monkeys that died of rickets in the zoo during He learned to distinguish different forms of rickets occurring at different ages, and to identify analogous conditions in humans.
Moving beyond the comparison of pathological changes, he began to report upon the symptoms that diseased monkeys experienced in life, such as diminished activity and paralysis of the lower limbs.
A short history of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps.
Monkeys responded by using their arms as crutches until these began to bow under the weight. They eventually became paraplegic, and suffered incontinence and priapism. After three to four months, death intervened, usually from bronchitis. Bland Sutton's comparative project grew larger still as he began to identify other animal species that suffered from the disease.
As humankind's oldest companion, dogs have been by our side for thousands of years. See how deeply our histories connect and learn how these lovable… more. See how deeply our histories connect and learn how these lovable canines evolved from formidable carnivores to loyal protectors and members of the family.
Long before we raised livestock and grew crops, humans lived side by side with dogs. In fact, their DNA is virtually identical. But exactly how did a fierce, wild animal … become our loyal companion? According to DNA analysis, the transformation from wolf to dog began some 20 to 40 thousand years ago, when people and wolves were living and hunting in close proximity.
By about 15 thousand years ago, dogs were found virtually everywhere people were. But humans may not be able to take all the credit for domestication. Some wolves were already less fearful of approaching people. One of the topics is animal gynecology. Tomb drawings predating the Kahun Papyrus by a couple thousand years document early Egyptian understanding of gynecology.
Archaeologists found fragments of a papyrus that was a medical textbook from somewhere around BC, indicating that Egyptians were familiar with the anatomy of animals, could recognize early warning signs of certain diseases in dogs, birds, fish and cattle, and used specific treatments to deal with them. A man named Urlugaledinna, who lived in Mesopotamia in BC, was considered an expert in his ability to heal animals.
Around BC, a Greek scientist named Alcmaeon dissected animals to study them. Early attempts to regulate and organize the treatment of animals were mainly focused on horses because of their economic importance to society. During the Middle Ages, farriers combined their trade of horseshoeing with general horse doctoring. When the Lord Mayor of London, which is different from the Mayor of London, learned about the poor care horses in London were receiving in , he persuaded all farriers within a seven mile radius of the city to form a fellowship to improve and regulate how they treated horses.
The fellowship led to the creation in of the Worshipful Company of Farriers.
The school focused on studying the anatomy and diseases of sheep, horses and cattle in an effort to combat cattle deaths from a plague in France. Cattle plagues were common throughout history, but attempts to learn how to fight microorganisms had to wait until the invention of the microscope sometime in the s. The first vaccinations for cattle were developed in and used to eradicate a plague in Europe.
Over the next ten years, veterinary schools were established in Germany, Sweden and Denmark. In , the London Veterinary College was established and developed veterinary science at a professional level dedicated to animal medicine. The wellbeing and health of horses was their initial focus for years, because of the use of horses in the Army. Eventually they turned their attention to cattle and other livestock, and finally added dogs and other animals. The first veterinary school established in the United States was the Veterinary College of Philadelphia in , which operated until In , the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania was established and is the oldest accredited veterinary school still in operation.
Its purpose was to protect the public from infectious diseases through contaminated meat, eradicate diseases in animals and improve the quality of livestock. Read more articles by Linda Cole Share this:.
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