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What is there to say about the period or comma? As you know, they are very valuable in unclear books, so that one who pays attention to them does not need an interpreter. He lost books that had been miscatalogued in public libraries, including a work by botanist and successor to Aristotle at the Peripatetic school, Theophrastus :.

I also found [books] of Theophrastus, in particular those on scientific matters. And, there was the tractate in precise agreement with Aristotle, that I discovered and copied, which is now lost. In the same way, both the books of Theophrastus and of some other men of old were not reported in the catalogues, some although recorded in them, are no longer extant. I found, then, many of these in the libraries on the Palatine, but some, on the contrary, I prepared.

The links are my additions :. The copy he used for that purpose have been his own or the library's in which case one might have expected it to be rather more accurate. His working assumption seems to have been that the books on the shelves of the Palatine library would reflect the lists in the catalogue, so that both would ideally be complete testaments of the outputs of the authors they house. It is the exceptions to this assumption that exercise Galen; in his excitement at finding a 'lost' work by an important author—one on the shelf but not in the Catalogue—or at proving the Catalogue's identification wrong by his analysis of a unique book, Galen is consciously presenting himself as the heir to the to Alexandrian and Pergamene library scholars of the Hellenistic age.

Galen went to great trouble to copy of some these texts because the papyrus rolls were deteriorating as a result of the humid climate. It has long been known that papyrus may be preserved for centuries in dry climates such as the Egyptian desert, but deteriorates rapidly with humidity:. As it is, the papyri are completely useless, not even able to be un-rolled because they have been glued together by decomposition, since the region is both marshy and low-lying, and, during the summer, it is stifling.

On the one hand, my friends at home [i. I planned, at the beginning of summer, to transport to Campania both those works that were meant to remain there [i. Besides his own works which he lost, Galen lost invaluable medical recipes that no one else had, recorded in parchment codices. Well, I will tell you this: I was entrusted with the possession of the most remarkable medical recipes, such as no one else in the entire Roman world possessed — fortune, in part, contributing to this and I myself, in part, contributing equally. The first of which is as follows: A certain rich man of those around me hastened to find knowledge concerning effective medications, with the result that he purchased some recipes in the amount of more than one hundred gold coins.

He set about this task in such a way as to purchase not only all the recipes that were held in esteem by physicians today in Asia, but also by those physicians of the past.

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Galen and the World of Knowledge is of considerable interest. From it I quote a brief section that appeared on pp. It is not just that he wrote so many titles; many of his treatises were in several books, each occupying a single book roll, so that one must imagine at least six or seven hundred rolls containing his own writings alone. In addition shorthand writers took down his words and copied out whatever other treatises he wanted for his own purposes.

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It is very likely that his was among the largest ancient collections of medical books, along with that of that voracious reader, the Elder Pliny, but any attempt to place Galen and others, along a spectrum of medical bibliophiles is doomed to failure. Both Celsus, the author of On Medicine , and Rufus of Ephesus were men of considerable learning, but establishing their sources is far from easy, and next to impossible for other doctors.

Papyrological and archaeological evidence for medical libraries is ambiguous at best. Galen's own comments about the books available to his less fortunate colleagues imply that they owned a mere handful of books. He recommends epitomes of his own more voluminous writings as more suitable for those who had neither the time nor the inclination to involve themselves with long and complicated expositions.

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His demands in On Examinations for a basic knowledge of a canon of distinguished authorities from the past presume that any competent physician would have a substantial library, but it is also clear from surviving tracts that much of this 'essential learning' could be gained from handbooks and summaries of one kind or another. But undoubtedly there were other healers with substantial resources, even if, as Galen complains, they did not spend as much as he did on books.

That account was posted in June The project is thought to have taken roughly 20 years to complete, by Origen with a team of assistants and scribes, some of whom may have been slaves. Origen was the first Christian biblical scholar, and the first Christian scholar to undertake the study of Hebrew.

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His Hexapla was not only a massive scholarly achievement in the early days of Christianity, but also a landmark in book history, since the Hexapla was undoubtedly the largest scholarly endeavor in the early history of Christianity—a work so large in terms of sheer information quantity that it could only have been written in a series of large codices, the format of the book that was gradually replacing the papyrus roll between and CE.

In papyrus roll form the Hexapla would have occupied hundreds of rolls, and would have been virtually impossible to use, a consideration which would have assured that the codex format was employed. The volumes of the Hexapla were also presumably the first codices to display information in tabular form— a form that Origen appears to have invented.

This copy may have been preserved in the library of the bishops of Caesarea for several centuries, but was lost in the Muslim invasion of in , if not earlier.

The three column page format of the large codices of the Hexapla is thought to have been influential on the four column format of the other large codex produced about a century later, which did survive— the Codex Sinaiticus. It is, of course, also likely that the Hexapla was used in editing the Bible text recorded in the Codex Sinaiticus.

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Origen's table format was also influential on the development of Eusebius's table format in his Chronicon. Only a few small fragments of codices have survived from the third century, and nothing from that date confirms the tabular form of the Hexapla, or even that it was written in codex form. For confirmation of the layout of the codex page openings of the Hexapla we depend upon later evidence: two early manuscript fragments that survived.

The first is a palimpsest from the Cairo Genizah in which the 8th century Greek text of a portion of the Psalms in the columnar form of the Hexapla was overwritten in Hebrew. I discovered this publication detail when I acquired a copy of Taylor's book in More recently the leaf was reproduced on p. The other fragment, coincidentally also of the Psalms, preserved in the Bibliotheca Ambrosiana in Milan, was written in Greek minuscule circa , and palimpsested with a 13th or 14th century Greek text. Jerome knew the work well. Not only did he possess Hexaplatic volumes of his own, which he used extensively in his translations and commentaries, but he also consulted the original at Caesarea.

In a brief aside in commentary on the pseudo-Pauline letter to Titus, he gives a detailed account of the work.

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Jerome says that in the original Hexapla preserved at Caesarea:. Aquila also, and Symmachus, the Septuagint, and Theodion hold their places. But for not a few books, and especially those which among the Hebrews are composed in verse, three other editions have been added, which are called the fifth, sixth, and seventh translations; they are considered authoritative though the names of the translators are lost.

Study of surviving fragments of Origen's Hexapla continued over the centuries. The first edition considered comprehensive was Bernard de Montfaucon's Hexaplorum Origenis quae supersunt 2 vols. This was superceded by the edition of Frederick Field Remarkably little is known about the libraries of individuals in classical, Hellenistic, or even medieval times.

It is believed that Lactantius may have followed Crispus to Trier when Crispus was made Caesar lesser co-emperor and sent to that city. The circumstances of Lactantius's death are unknown. Biblioteca Universitaria , an uncial manuscript of leaves written in North or Central Italy in a center of learning and fine calligraphy in the second half of the fifth century. This manuscript is dated within little more than a century after Lactantius's death. The links are, of course, my additions:. Nor, as we have seen, was he a scholar of great range and acumen: indeed his familiarity with Greek literature is slight, which may partly account for his evident unhappiness in Bithynia.

The preceding chapters have attempted to discover what works he either used in writing. No Greek classical prose or poetry.

Of classical prose authors Cicero leads the field, although the absence of so many speeches and other works, such as the De Finibus and the letters, is striking. An anthology provided him with most of his biblical and apocryphal quotations and, probably, with those apologetic commonplaces which he could not locate in Minucius , Cyprian , Theophilus , or Tertullian's Apologeticum. Terullian was writing during the great archaizing revival of the later second century, when old books were unearthed and reread, and before the political breakdown of the third century.

But in other respects he and Augustine are very similar to Lactantius. Augustine knew little Greek and derived his Platonic philosophy from Cicero Epist.

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Between the time of Tertullian and his own day the great process of survival had already jettisoned many literary treasures of Athens and Rome to oblivion. As a small bibliophilic aside, I was surprised to acquire R. Eduard Schwartz supposes that Origen's library was damaged at this time, although there is no direct evidence of it. Probably Schwartz made his conjecture because it helps to explain why Pamphilus later had to expend great effort to acquire copies of Origen's works for the Caesarean library. Decius required that people of the Roman Empire perform sacrifice and receive certificates libelli of compliances with the imperial order.

In or Origen was arrested, imprisoned, and tortured, but he evidently survived the persecution. It seems, then that either his case was dismissed or, what is probably more likely, he simply outlived the persecution and was freed in Because Origen's judge had the power to coerce Origen's compliance by imprisonment, torture, and the assessment of fines, even to the extent of confiscation of his personal property, it is possible that his library was damaged, though certainly it was not destroyed, since, for example, the Hexapla survived until at least Jerome's day.

Indeed, despite the persecution, as well as whatever other misfortunes may have befallen the library after Origen's death, Pamphilus was probably drawn to settle at Caesarea because of the reputation the city enjoyed as the home of Origen's library. Origen's bishop, Theoctistus, survived for almost another decade, through the persecution under Valerian to the restoration of peace by Gallienus in Domnus succeeded him for a short time and was himself then succeeded by Theotecnus, whom Eusebius calls a contemporary.

Theotecnus' access is according dated to sometime after Because of this association with Origen, it is possible that Origen's library now came, if it was not already, under direct episcopal authority" Carriker, The Library of Eusebius of Caesarea [] Note that I left out numerous textual citations by Carriker and his many footnotes.

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The links are, of course, my additions. This story of Origen's emasculation remained sensational throughout the Middle Ages, as it was illustrated in various miniature paintings, such as the one reproduced from Bodleian Library, MS Douce , fol. Douce , fol. Its fifth and final text is written in a single column, 12 lines. Dating from about , it is one of the earliest extant codices, showing the adoption of the codex form of the book by early Christians. In it was the earliest codex in private hands. The codex represents the earliest known complete text of the two books of the Bible, Jonah and 1 Peter.

Of 1 Peter there is also a Greek papyrus slightly later, circa , from the same hoard, now in the Vatican Library. It is the single most important manuscript of 1 Peter. Texts 2 and 4 are also the earliest witnesses.