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HSC Chemistry - Collision Theory and Equilibrium (New Syllabus)

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Chemical Reactions - All Topics | ylehylyzoz.tk

Catalysis in Ionic Liquids. Chris Hardacre. Catalytic Cascade Reactions. Peng-Fei Xu. Hans-Joachim Knolker. Water Extraction of Bioactive Compounds. Herminia Dominguez. Changing the temperature can also affect equilibrium position. How it does this and whether it favours the reactants or the products will depend on the reaction. Chemical reactions can be either exothermic give out heat or endothermic take in heat. If the energy required to break bonds is less than the energy released when forming new bonds, the reaction will be exothermic.

If the energy required to break bonds is more than the energy released when forming new bonds, the reaction is endothermic. For reversible reactions, either the forwards or backwards reaction will be exothermic, and the other will be endothermic. When we increase the temperature, the reaction will favour whichever reaction is endothermic to take in heat and reduce the temperature.

On the other hand, if we decrease the temperature, the exothermic reaction will be favoured, as this will give out heat and increase the temperature. Changing the pressure of a reaction involving gases can also affect the position of equilibrium.

Reversible Reactions, Equilibrium, and Le Châtelier’s Principle

Pressure is caused by the collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container. It follows, then, that the greater the number of gas particles, the higher the pressure will be — and this gives us a hint as to the effect changing pressure has on the equilibrium position.

It can do this by favouring the side of the reaction with fewer gas molecules; which side this is will of course depend on the reaction in question. Conversely, if we decrease the pressure, the equilibrium will respond to increase the pressure, and will therefore favour the side of the reaction with more gas molecules.

As a caveat, there are plenty of reactions where we actually have the same number of gaseous molecules shown in the balanced equation. In this case, changing the pressure will have no effect, as it will not favour either side of the reaction. Catalysts are often used by chemists to increase the speed of chemical reactions.


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This is because it speeds up both the forwards and backwards reaction by an equal amount, so overall neither side of the reaction is favoured by using one. The problem with the reaction is that it is reversible; therefore some tweaking is required to produce as much ammonia as possible. The ammonia that is produced is also removed from the reactor, so that the equilibrium responds by shifting to produce more ammonia.

A iron catalyst is often used to make the reaction happen faster. In terms of temperature, the forwards reaction nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia is exothermic. This is by no means a low temperature, so why is it used? Though the amounts of the reactants and products may initially be the same once we reach dynamic equilibrium, we can make adjustments to the conditions of the equilibrium to change the proportions of reactants and products in the equilibrium mixture.

D&R - Kültür Sanat ve Eğlence Dünyası

For example, if we increase the temperature of the reaction, it will respond in a way that decreases the temperature. If we increase the concentration of a reactant, it will respond in a way that decreases the concentration of that reactant. On the face of it, this seems quite simple. However, applying it can be a little trickier than it initially seems.

Concentration is simply a measure of how much of a substance we have in a particular volume. Say we increase the concentration of one of the reactants; the equilibrium can reduce its concentration by favouring the forwards reaction and producing more of the products. The net result of increasing the concentration of the reactants would be the production of more of the products at equilibrium.


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  3. Worked example 6: Using Le Chatelier's principle.
  4. Changing the temperature can also affect equilibrium position. How it does this and whether it favours the reactants or the products will depend on the reaction. Chemical reactions can be either exothermic give out heat or endothermic take in heat. If the energy required to break bonds is less than the energy released when forming new bonds, the reaction will be exothermic. If the energy required to break bonds is more than the energy released when forming new bonds, the reaction is endothermic.

    For reversible reactions, either the forwards or backwards reaction will be exothermic, and the other will be endothermic. When we increase the temperature, the reaction will favour whichever reaction is endothermic to take in heat and reduce the temperature. On the other hand, if we decrease the temperature, the exothermic reaction will be favoured, as this will give out heat and increase the temperature. Changing the pressure of a reaction involving gases can also affect the position of equilibrium.

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    Pressure is caused by the collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container. It follows, then, that the greater the number of gas particles, the higher the pressure will be — and this gives us a hint as to the effect changing pressure has on the equilibrium position. It can do this by favouring the side of the reaction with fewer gas molecules; which side this is will of course depend on the reaction in question. However, cooling a system slows down all chemical reactions and so the system can't be too cold.

    This process is carried out at a much higher temperature to ensure the speed of production. The decrease of product concentration favours the forward reaction. Therefore the reverse reaction is favoured. According to this table, which temperature would be best if you wanted to produce as much ammonia as possible?

    At this temperature the forward reaction is favoured and so the the maximum yield of ammonia is achieved. Henry Louis Le Chatelier. Video: 27VP. Video: 27VQ.

    What would be observed? What would the colour change be due to this equilibrium shift? Label the graph with what is happening at each stage. Check the axes so that you know what the variables are on this graph The axes are labelled rate and time.